1730's--First Great Awakening
Leaders included George Whitefield, John Wesley and Jonathan Edwards.
Series of evangelical revivals. Participants became actively involved in their religion rather than detached listening, people began to study the bible at home, dividing many protestant churches.
1790--The Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening was characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the supernatural. It rejected the skeptical rationalism and deism of the Enlightenment.
Reform seen as part of God's plan.
1816--American Colonization Society
Founded by Robert Finney. Encourage migration of free African Americans to Africa (the Pepper Coast, near Sierra Leone). Protestant and Quaker churches.
Started by Josiah Holbrook in Millbury,
MA (Holbrook also organized the first industrial school in the US, he
was interested in agronomy and scientific farming techniques) .
Initially these were local speakers debating and speaking but moved
toward national speakers, including Fredrick Douglas, Susan B Anthony,
Thoreau and Emerson. This broadened school curriculum and the spread of
public libraries. After the Civil War it merged with the Chattaqua
Founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappen. Condemned slavery. Called for "immediatism", the immediate , uncompensated liberation of slaves. Men only organization. Did not want to win equal rights, a slave insurrection, or violence. Most members were pacifists. Most American people, in both North and South looked on abolitionists as fanatics. (Perry, pg. 148)
1833--Female Anti-Slavery Society
Philadelphia. Included both races.
1840--American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society
Founded by Arthur Tappen. Against women's suffrage and political process.
1846--American Missionary Association
Founded by Tappen. Mission abolition of slavery, education of African Americans, equality (this was a major difference between it and the AAS, the AAS did not advocate for equality). Sponsored by Congregationalists.
Started in New York for the education of Sunday school teachers. Became a widespread adult education format. Many featured reform or inspirational speeches, lectures,entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers,
teachers, musicians, showmen, preachers, and specialists of the day. Usually occurring over several days and had the aspect of a retreat. Some featured permanent buildings others took place in tents.
Mechanics Institutes--Adult education, particularly technical for working men providing lectures, laboratories and libraries for working men. Often these were funded by industrialists in order to create better workers and to keep the workers from drinking and cavorting. (the oldest chess club in the U.S. is at the Mechanics Institute in San Francisco, it was founded in 1854). These were more common in Britain than in the U.S., originated in Glasglow.
1830-1850 beginnings--Poorhouses--Known in Britain as Workhouses. Usually run by the local government and often a farm which was at least in part self supporting, housing for the poor or needy. In Kansas, there was one in almost every county. Initially people were sent to the overseer of the poor and he would try to work with them to keep them in their own home but if this was not possible they would then be sent to the poor farm (KS HB 135, 1883 created). These were not debtor's prisons--this in Kansas was typically called the Workhouse and was part of the prison.